Need Salivary Analysis?Test My Samples
|Sample Test Volume||25 μL|
|Recommended Collection Volume||75 μL*|
|Collection Protocol||Download PDF|
Cortisol (hydrocortisone, Compound F) is the major glucocorticoid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is actively involved in the regulation of calcium absorption, blood pressure maintenance, anti-inflammatory function, gluconeogenesis, gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and immune function. (1,2,3) Cortisol production has a circadian rhythm. (4) Levels peak in the early morning and drop to the lowest concentration at night. (5) Levels rise independently of circadian rhythm in response to stress. (6) Increased cortisol production is associated with Cushing’s syndrome and adrenal tumors, while decreased cortisol production is associated with adrenal insufficiency (e.g., Addison’s disease) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. (7)
In the blood only 1 to 15% of cortisol is in its unbound or biologically active form. The remaining cortisol is bound to serum proteins. (8) Unbound serum cortisol enters the saliva via intracellular mechanisms, and in saliva the majority of cortisol remains unbound to protein. (9)
Salivary cortisol levels are unaffected by salivary flow rate or salivary enzymes. (10) Studies consistently report high correlations between serum and saliva cortisol, indicating that salivary cortisol levels reliably estimate serum cortisol levels. (11,12,13)
- SalivaBio Passive Drool Method
- SalivaBio Oral Swab (SOS) Method
- SalivaBio Infant’s Swab (SIS) Method
- SalivaBio Children’s Swab (SCS) Method
- Migeon, C.J., & Lanes, R.L. (1990). Adrenal cortex: hypo- and hyperfunction. In F. Lifshitz (ed.), Pediatric endocrinology, a clinical guide (2nd ed.), (pp. 333-52). New York: Marcel Dekker.
- Drucker, S., New, M.I. (1987). Disorders of adrenal steroidogenesis. Pediatr Clin North Am, 34(4), 1055-66.
- Fischbach, F.T. (1992). The manual of laboratory and diagnostic tests, (4th ed.). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
- Dorn, L.D., Lucke, J.F., Loucks, T.L., Berga, S.L. (2007). Salivary cortisol reflects serum cortisol: analysis of circadian profiles. Ann Clin Biochem, 44(pt 3), 281-84.
- Chernow, B., Alexander, H.R., Smallridge, R.C., et al. (1987). Hormonal responses to graded surgical stress. Arch Intern Med, 147(7), 1273-78.
- Kreiger, D.T. (1975). Rhythms of ACTH and corticosteroid secretion in health and disease and their experimental modification. J Steroid Biochem, 6(5), 758-91.
- Rothfield, B. (1974). Plasma cortisol. In: B. Rothfield (ed.), Nuclear medicine–in vitro (pp. 120-5). Philadelphia: Lippincott.
- Robin, P., Predine, J., Milgrom, E. (1977). Assay of unbound cortisol in plasma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 46(2), 277-83.
- Vining, R.F., McGinley, R.A., Symons, R.G. (1983). Hormones in saliva: mode of entry and consequent implications for clinical interpretation. Clin Chem, 29(10), 1752-56.
- Vining, R.F., McGinley, R.A. (1987). The measurement of hormones in saliva: Possibilities and pitfalls. J Steroid Biochem, 27(1-3), 81-94.
- Francis, S.J., Walker, R.F., Riad-Fahmy, D., et al. (1987). Assessment of adrenocortical activity in term newborn infants using salivary cortisol determinations. J of Pediatrics, 111, 129-33.
- Hiramatsu, R. (1981). Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications. Clinica Chimica Acta, 117, 239-249.
- Vining, R.F., McGinley, R.A., Maksvytis, J.J., Ho, K.Y. (1983). Salivary cortisol: A better measure of adrenal cortical function than serum cortisol. Ann Clin Biochem, 20(pt 6), 329-35.
Do you have freeze/thaw data for each analyte?
The effects of freeze thaw on most biological measures, regardless of biospecimen type, can be dramatic. Analytes in oral fluid are not distinct or different in this way. As a general rule, multiple freeze-thaws should be avoided. The most practical way to address this concern is by aliqouting samples after collection. Some analytes are more resistant to freeze thaw than others. We recommend that investigators consult the literature for the analytes of interest. If there is freeze thaw data for a specific biological measure in traditional biospecimens, it is reasonable to assume this would also be true for saliva.
Do you have data for the circadian/diurnal pattern for each analyte?
No, but the literature is rather extensive on this subject for several salivary analytes; especially for salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol. We do not track that information internally.
Could you provide me some references for my analyte of interest?
With modern search tools online, we no longer maintain records of this type. We suggest that you use Pubmed or Psychlit to search the literature or you can Ask An Expert and we will be happy to assist you in your search.
I'm interested in an analyte that is NOT no your analyte list. Can it be measured in saliva?
If the analyte you are interested in is not noted in our website, please contact Dr. Granger at [email protected] to find out what developments are in the pipeline.
Why is our zero not reading 0 when we run an assay?
Salimetrics does not release products for sale if the quality control (QC) testing shows any issues. Here are some probable causes:
1) Can timing of adding reagents be off? For instance with a multichannel you can pipette the conjugate and TMB so many times before you refill, but you can pipette the stop twice as fast because it is a smaller volume. If you do this, it shortens the time the bottom rows have with TMB.
2) Can your washer be uneven and sheering off antibody in the bottom corner? Aspirate and check the amount of fluid left. It should be even in all wells and no wells should be completely dry.
3) Are you mixing faster than recommended? Or slower?
4) Are all reagents completely at room temperature? A bottle of assay diluent takes 2 hours to come to RT. You can pour some off into a smaller tube to warm up quicker for the zero and nsb.
5) Are you leaving the plate come to room temperature BEFORE opening the bag? (Otherwise moisture due to humidity may form in the wells and this is particularly a problem in this high humidity weather)
6) Are your multichannel pipettes dispensing the same amount each time reliably? We discard the first and last dispenses as they are not as reliable.
7) Are you incubating with TMB in the dark? (We no longer recommend aluminum foil.)
8) Are you testing one plate at a time? For example, do not put the standards on 5 plates then go back and fill in with samples. This delays the addition of conjugate to the plates.
9) Clean your plate reader filter. Dust from the lab can collect on the filter.
10) Are you adding assay diluent to the zero in sequence after the standards and not the last thing?
11) Never put the multichannel pipette tips into the wells as you can drag down standard from the wells above it causing lower readings in other wells.
12) Thoroughly blot all wells just before adding TMB but do not let the plate dry out.