Need Salivary Analysis?Test My Samples
|Sample Test Volume||60 μL|
|Recommended Collection Volume||135 μL*|
|Collection Protocol||Download PDF|
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of a family of biologically active small protein molecules known as cytokines. It is released by a variety of tissues, including activated leukocytes, adipocytes, and endothelial cells, and it is involved in many processes in the body. IL-6 plays an important role in stimulating the immune response to infection or trauma by inducing the production of acute-phase proteins such as CRP and by fever induction. (1,2,3) In addition to its pro-inflammatory role, IL-6 also has anti-inflammatory properties. (4) Messenger RNA for IL-6 has been found in tissues of healthy human labial salivary glands, and the expression levels of the mRNAs were either up- or down-regulated by adjacent focal infiltrating lymphoid cells. The epithelial cells in the salivary glands are active participants in the autoimmune-mediated process of Sjögren’s syndrome, and salivary levels of IL-6 are increased in that disease. (5,6) Salivary IL-6 levels are also increased in periodontal disease. (7)
Researchers have found relationships between salivary IL-6 and sleep dysfunction, psychosocial factors, and stress. (8,9,10) A study with mice has shown that normal parotid acinar cells synthesize IL-6 and store it in secretory granules. The IL-6 is released from the granules following α- and β-adrenergic stimulation. (11)
- SalivaBio Passive Drool Method
- SalivaBio Oral Swab (SOS) Method
- SalivaBio Infant’s Swab (SIS) Method
- SalivaBio Children’s Swab (SCS) Method
- McCarty, M.F. (1999). Interleukin-6 as a central mediator of cardiovascular risk associated with chronic inflammation, smoking, diabetes, and visceral obesity: Down-regulation with essential fatty acids, ethanol and pentoxifylline. Med Hypotheses, 52(5), 465-77.
- Castell, J.V., Gomez-Lechon, M.J., David, M., et al. (1990). Acute-phase response of human hepatocytes: Regulation of acute-phase protein synthesis by interleukin-6. Hepatology, 12(5), 1179-86.
- Chai, Z., Gatti, S., Toniatti, C., et al. (1996). Interleukin (IL)-6 gene expression in the central nervous system is necessary for fever response to lipopolysaccharide or IL-1β: A study on IL-6-deficient mice. J Exp Med, 183(1), 311-16.
- Tilg, H., Trehu, E., Atkins, M.B. (1994). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an anti-inflammatory cytokine: Induction of circulating IL-1 receptor antagonist and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55. Blood, 83(1), 113-18.
- Sun, D., Emmert-Buck, M.R., Fox, P.C. (1998). Differential cytokine mRNA expression in human labial minor salivary glands in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Autoimmunity, 28(3), 125-37.
- Tishler, M., Yaron, I., Shirazi, I., et al. (1999). Increased salivary interleukin-6 levels in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Rheumatol Int, 18(4), 125-27.
- Costa, P.P., Trevisan, G.L., Macedo, G.O., et al. (2010). Salivary interleukin-6, matrix metalloproteinase-8, and osteoprotegerin in patients with periodontitis and diabetes. J Periodontology, 81(3), 384-91.
- El-Sheikh, M., Buckhalt, J.A., Granger, D.A., et al. (2007). The association between children’s sleep disruption and salivary interleukin-6. J Sleep Res, 16(2), 188-97.
- Sjögren, E., Leanderson, P., Kristenson, M., Ernerudh, J. (2006). Interleukin-6 levels in relation to psychosocial factors: Studies on serum, saliva, and in vitro production by blood mononuclear cells. Brain Behav Immun, 20(3), 270-78.
- Groer, M., Murphy, r., bunnell, W., et al. (2010). Salivary measures of stress and immunity in police officers engaged in simulated critical incident scenarios. J Occup Environ Med, 52(6), 595-602.
- Tanda, N., Ohyama, H., Yamakawa, M., et al. (1998). IL-1β and IL-6 in mouse parotid acinar cells: Characterization of synthesis, storage, and release. Am J Physiol, 274(1 Pt 1), G147-56.
Do you have freeze/thaw data for each analyte?
The effects of freeze thaw on most biological measures, regardless of biospecimen type, can be dramatic. Analytes in oral fluid are not distinct or different in this way. As a general rule, multiple freeze-thaws should be avoided. The most practical way to address this concern is by aliqouting samples after collection. Some analytes are more resistant to freeze thaw than others. We recommend that investigators consult the literature for the analytes of interest. If there is freeze thaw data for a specific biological measure in traditional biospecimens, it is reasonable to assume this would also be true for saliva.
Do you have data for the circadian/diurnal pattern for each analyte?
No, but the literature is rather extensive on this subject for several salivary analytes; especially for salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol. We do not track that information internally.
Could you provide me some references for my analyte of interest?
With modern search tools online, we no longer maintain records of this type. We suggest that you use Pubmed or Psychlit to search the literature or you can Ask An Expert and we will be happy to assist you in your search.
I'm interested in an analyte that is NOT no your analyte list. Can it be measured in saliva?
If the analyte you are interested in is not noted in our website, please contact Dr. Granger at [email protected] to find out what developments are in the pipeline.
Why is our zero not reading 0 when we run an assay?
Salimetrics does not release products for sale if the quality control (QC) testing shows any issues. Here are some probable causes:
1) Can timing of adding reagents be off? For instance with a multichannel you can pipette the conjugate and TMB so many times before you refill, but you can pipette the stop twice as fast because it is a smaller volume. If you do this, it shortens the time the bottom rows have with TMB.
2) Can your washer be uneven and sheering off antibody in the bottom corner? Aspirate and check the amount of fluid left. It should be even in all wells and no wells should be completely dry.
3) Are you mixing faster than recommended? Or slower?
4) Are all reagents completely at room temperature? A bottle of assay diluent takes 2 hours to come to RT. You can pour some off into a smaller tube to warm up quicker for the zero and nsb.
5) Are you leaving the plate come to room temperature BEFORE opening the bag? (Otherwise moisture due to humidity may form in the wells and this is particularly a problem in this high humidity weather)
6) Are your multichannel pipettes dispensing the same amount each time reliably? We discard the first and last dispenses as they are not as reliable.
7) Are you incubating with TMB in the dark? (We no longer recommend aluminum foil.)
8) Are you testing one plate at a time? For example, do not put the standards on 5 plates then go back and fill in with samples. This delays the addition of conjugate to the plates.
9) Clean your plate reader filter. Dust from the lab can collect on the filter.
10) Are you adding assay diluent to the zero in sequence after the standards and not the last thing?
11) Never put the multichannel pipette tips into the wells as you can drag down standard from the wells above it causing lower readings in other wells.
12) Thoroughly blot all wells just before adding TMB but do not let the plate dry out.