IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α are three important examples of a class of signaling molecules known as pro-inflammatory cytokines, which play an important role in initiating the body’s acute phase inflammatory response to infections, injuries, or possibly stress. IL-1β and to a lesser extent TNF-α, have been strongly associated with oral inflammatory conditions including gingivitis and periodontal disease. These conditions play a larger role in more severe systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. IL-6 also induces the production of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the liver, which when elevated chronically can lead to obesity. Importantly, several reports indicate that all four cytokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of certain oral cancers and have been implicated as markers for early oral cancer detection. Therefore, in addition to their utility in assessing oral inflammation, these markers may also be of interest in other fields, including cancer, asthma, and stress research.
|Optimum Collection Volume:||100 μL|
|Total Number of Samples Required:||1|
|IL-1 beta:||0.0195-589 pg/mL|
How to Collect Saliva
CYTOKINE PANEL SALIVA COLLECTION CONSIDERATIONS
Better results begin with better saliva collection. This collection protocol features general considerations to maximize salivary Cytokine analysis. Use this saliva collection protocol to plan your collection methodology and sampling schemes.
References & Salivary Cytokine Research
- Bishop, N.C. & Gleeson, M. (2009). Acute and chronic effects of exercise on markers of mucosal immunity. AFront Biosci, 14, 4444-56.
- Brandtzaeg, P. (2007). Do salivary antibodies reliably reflect both mucosal and systemic immunity? . Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1098, 288-311.
- Brennan, M.T. & Fox, P.C. (2000). Cytokine mRNA expression in the labial salivary glands of healthy volunteers. Oral Dis, 6(4), 222-26.
- Chiapelli, F., Iribarren, F.J., & Prolo, P. (2006). Salivary biomarkers in psychobiological medicine. . Bioinformation, 1(8), 331-4.
- Minetto, M.A., Gazzoni, M., Fanfranco, F., Baldi, M., Saba, L., Pedrola, R., Komi, P.V., & Rainoldi, A. (2007). Influence of the sample collection method on salivary interleukin-6 levels in resting and post-exercise conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol, 101(2), 249-56.
- Ng, P.Y., Donley, M., Hausmann, E., Hutson, A.D., Rossomando, E.F., & Scannapieco, F.A. (2007). Candidate salivary biomarkers associated with alveloar bone loss: Cross-sectional and in vitro studies. FEMS Immuno Med Microbiol, 49(2), 252-60.
- Ruhl, S., Hamberger, S., Betz, R., Sukkar, T., Schmalz, G., Seymour, R.A., Hiller, K.A., & Thomason, J.M. (2004). Salivary proteins and cytokines in drug-induced gingival overgrowth. J Dent Res, 83(4), 322-6.
- Sjögren, E., Leanderson, P., Kristenson, M., & Ernerudh, J. (2006). Interleukin-6 levels in relation to psychosocial factors: Studies on serum, saliva, and in vitro production by blood mononuclear cells. . Brain Behav Immun, 20(3), 270-78.
- Wozniak, K.L. Arribas, A., Leigh, J.E., & Fidel, P.L., Jr. (2002). Inhibitory effects of whole and parotid saliva on immunomodulators. Oral Microbiol Immunol, 17(2), 100-07.